RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EDUCATION 401 No order of development is recognized. It is enough that the earlier parts should be easier than those that come after. The idea of mind as a unity in process of development, on the other hand, calls for a radically different procedure. With that there must be in the first instance a clear view of the dominant directions of activity at successive periods of life. Once this is obtained through a scientific study of the learning mind, there must be a selection and grading of the material suitable for the course of study at each period by means of experience and experiment. In dealing with the arrangement and use of the subject-matter of instruction, Dewey turns to another aspect of genetic psycho- logy. Mind, he points out, is essentially social. It was made what it is by society, and depends for its development on a social environment. u Earlier psychology regarded mind as a purely individual affair in direct and naked contact with an external world. At present the tendency is to conceive individual mind as a function of social life, requiring continual stimulus from social agencies and finding its nutriment in social supplies."* Nature, indeed, furnishes its physical stimuli of light, sound, heat, etc.; but these have been transformed by man in accordance with social needs and aims, and the interpretation of them depends on the way in which the society to which the child belongs acts and reacts in reference to them. Through social experience he learns the significance of the bare physical stimuli, and " re- capitulates in a few short years the progress which it has taken the race slow centuries to work out.'* This genetic view of mind has its counterpart in education. Formerly, when mind was sup- posed to get its content from contact with the world, the require- ments of instruction were thought to be met by bringing the child into direct relation with various Amasses of external fact labelled geography, arithmetic, grammar, etc. It was not realized that these studies had been generated out of social situations and represented the answers found for social needs, and consequently they were presented to the child as mere information without any attempt being made to relate them to his own needs. Once the new psychology is translated into educational terms, this misap- prehension with regard to the process of education disappears. The subject-matters of history, science and art cease to be re- garded as something foreign to the pupil's experience. They * School and Society* p. 108.